Goldman, L., et al.

Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncardiac surgical procedures, NEJM 1977

  • preoperative third heart sound or jugular venous distention
  • myocardial infarction in the preceding six months
  • more than five premature ventricular contractions per minute documented at any time before operation
  • rhythm other than sinus or presence of premature atrial contractions on preoperative electrocardiogram
  • age over 70 years
  • intraperitoneal, intrathoracic or aortic operation
  • emergency operation
  • important valvular aortic stenosis
  • poor general medical condition

Back to BBAC Protocol by Art Wallace, MD PhD